8.12 Summary

    1. 1 in tough conditions, cells jettisonnonessentials and enter stationary phase
    2. 2 they compact their DNA and protect it with RecA/RadA
    3. 3 some species send offspring insearch of better conditions to settle
    4. 4 others package them intotime capsules of spores
    5. 5 dormant spores can withstanddehydration, acid, and heat
    6. 6 waiting until conditions improveto germinate and resume active life
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    Concept Check Questions

    • What is the function of RecA and RadA?

    • What is the difference between the two daughters produced by Caulobacter crescentus division?

    • What kind of macromolecule makes up the spore cortex? The spore coat?

    • In diderms, which membrane forms the inner spore membrane? The outer spore membrane?

    Further Reading

    • Fendrihan et al. (2006). Extremely halophilic archaea and the issue of long-term microbial survival [75].

    • Pletnev et al. (2015). Survival guide: Escherichia coli in the stationary phase [76].

    • Tocheva et al. (2016). Sporulation, bacterial cell envelopes and the origin of life [77].

    • Vreeland et al. (2000). Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal [78].