3.8 Summary

    1. 1 the simplest cellshape is coccoid
    2. 2 cytoskeletons enable other shapesthat make it possible for cells...
    3. 3 ...to grow bigger without loweringtheir surface-area-to-volume ratio
    4. 4 ...or to swim or burrow more efficiently
    5. 5 ...or to absorb more nutrients
    6. 6 ...or to soak up more sun
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    Summary

    Concept Check Questions

    • What shape maximizes volume relative to surface area?

    • What is a cytoskeletal element?

    • How could a cytoskeletal element grow a rod shape from a coccoid?

    • How could a cytoskeletal element grow a vibrioid shape from a rod?

    Further Reading

    • Barry and Gitai (2011). Self-assembling enzymes and the origins of the cytoskeleton [33].

    • Pfeifer (2012). Distribution, formation and regulation of gas vesicles [34].

    • Pilhofer and Jensen (2013). The bacterial cytoskeleton: More than twisted filaments [35].

    • Young (2006). The selective value of bacterial shape [30].